MIL * 5CH00L ILCn AGHUSETT FORTY-SEVENTH' Till CQ Co CO co CO O O X (J CO O I- <: I- co UJ Forty-seventh Year OF THE STATE NORMAL SCHOOL AT Salem, Mass, 1 900-1 901 BOSTON : WRIGHT & POTTER PRINTING CO., STATE PRINTERS, 1 8 Post Office Square. 1901. State Board of Education. Established 1837. His Excellency W. MURRAY CRANE. His Honor JOHN L. BATES. George H. Conley, A.M., Mrs. Alice Freeman Palmer, Joel D. Miller, A.M., Mrs. Kate Gannett Wells, . Franklin Carter, Ph.D., LL.D. George I. Aldrich, A.M., Elmer H. Capen, D.D., LL.D., Elijah B. Stoddard, A.M., Boston, . Cambridge, . Leominster, . Boston, . Williamstown, Newtonville, . Tufts College, Worcester, TERM EXPIRES. May 25, 1901. May 25, 1902. May 25, 1903. May 25, 1904. May 25, 1905. May 25, 1906. May 25, 1907. May 25, 1908. OFFICERS OF THE BOARD OF EDUCATION. Frank A. Hill, Litt.D., Secretary, Cambridge. Caleb B. Tillinghast, A.M., Clerk and Treasurer, . . . Boston. John T. Prince, Ph.D., Agent, Newtonville. Grenville T. Fletcher, A.M., Agent, Northampton. Henry T. Bailey, Agent, North Scituate. James W. MacDonald, A.M., Agent, Stoneham. L. Walter Sargent, Assistant Agent, . . . . . . Boston. BOARD OF VISITORS. Elmer H. Capen, D.D., LL.D. George I. Aldrich, A.M. INSTRUCTORS. WALTER P. BECKWITH, A.M., Ph.D., .... Principal. Psychology, Pedagogy, School Laws. Ellen M. Dodge, English Literature. Harriet L. Martin, Algebra, Geometry. Jessie P. Learoyd, Botany, English Grammar. Charles E. Adams, Physics, Chemistry. Charles F. Whitney, Drawing and Art. Mary A. Comey, History, Penmanship, Arithmetic. William C. Moore, S.B., Geology, Geography. M. Alice Warren, Biology, Physiology, Physical Training. Florence M. Snell, A.M., English Literature. Vesta H. Sawtelle, Music. Florence P. Salisbury, Reading, Physical Training. Isabella G. Knight, A.B., Library, Records. Gertrude B. Goldsmith, A.B., Assistant in Biology. Maude M. Brickett, Assistant in Geography. MODEL SCHOOLS. Maud S. Wheeler, . Cassie L. Paine, Mary E. James, D. Frances Campbell, M. Maud Vanston, . Harriet E. Richmond, Harriet S. Warren (Assistant), Fifth and Sixth Grades. Fourth Grade. Third Grade. Second Grade. First Grade. Kindergarten. Kindergarten. Calendar for 1901-1902. SPRING RECESS. From close of school on Friday, April 5, 1901, to Tuesday, April 16, 1901, at 9.20 a.m. GRADUATION. Wednesday, June 26, 1901, at 2.30 p.m. FIRST ENTRANCE EXAMINATIONS. Thursday and Friday, June 27 and 28, 1901, at 9 a.m. SECOND ENTRANCE EXAMINATIONS. Tuesday and Wednesday, Sept. 10 and 11, 1901, at 9 a.m. SCHOOL YEAR BEGINS. Thursday, Sept, 12, 1901, at 9.20 a.m. THANKSGIVING RECESS. From Wednesday, 12 m., preceding Thanksgiving Day to the following Tuesday, at 9.20 a.m. CHRISTMAS RECESS. From close of school on Friday, Dec. 20, 1901, to Thursday, Jan. 2, 1902, at 9.20 a.m. SECOND TERM BEGINS. Tuesday, Jan. 28, 1902. SPRING RECESS. From close of school on Friday, March 28, 1902, to Tuesday, April 8, 1902, at 9.20 a.m. GRADUATION. Wednesday, June 25, 1902, at 2.30 p.m. FIRST ENTRANCE EXAniNATIONS. Thursday and Friday, June 26 and 27, 1902, at 9 a.m. SECOND ENTRANCE EXAMINATIONS. Tuesday and Wednesday, Sept. 9 and 10, 1902, at 9 a.m. Note. — The regular weekly holiday of the school is on Monday, but the model schools conform to the practice of the other public schools in Salem, and have their holiday on Saturday. STATE NORMAL SCHOOL, SALEM, MASS, This school was established by the Commonwealth of Massa- chusetts, with the co-operation of the city of Salem and of the Eastern Railroad Company, and opened in September, 1854. The purpose for which it was established was the preparation of women for the work of teaching in the public schools. It is now open to men as well. Like the other normal schools of the State, it is under the general supervision of the Board of Education, from whose membership a special Board of Visitors is appointed, in whom is vested the immediate control. The building now occupied by the school was erected in 1893- 1896, through the generous provision made by the Legislature of the Commonwealth, in response to the representations and requests of the Board of Visitors and of the principal of the school. The preparation of plans was entrusted to J. Philip Rinn, A.M., of Boston, an architect who had already won distinction in the erection of buildings of a public character. Mr. Rinn entered cordially into the desires of the authorities of the school, and from the beginning manifested a determination to secure a building which should present not only an imposing exterior, but an interior adapted to every modern necessity. The exterior speaks for itself ; the interior is proving in actual use admirably adapted to its purpose. THE SCHOOL BUILDING. The new building is located in the southern part of the city, — a section devoted chiefly to residential purposes, — in a command- ing position at the junction of the electric car lines from Lynn and Marblehead. It is constructed of buff brick, with light- colored stone and terra-cotta trimmings, and it has three stories and a basement. Facing northward, it is 180 feet in length from east to west, and the two wings are each 140 feet from north to south. 8 STATE NORMAL SCHOOL, SALEM. In the basement are located the heating and ventilating apparatus, the toilet and play rooms for the pupils of the model schools, besides a fine gymnasium with its adjoining dressing room, the industrial laboratory, bicycle room, lunch room, and store rooms for supplies and materials. On the first floor, in the central part of the structure, are the toilet and cloak rooms, furnished with individual lockers, for the use of the normal students. Access to this portion of the build- ing is provided by means of two outside doors. In each wing is another entrance for the pupils of the model schools. The rooms for these schools — nine in number, besides four recitation rooms connected with them — are upon the east, south and west sides, and are all large and well lighted. Including the kindergarten, they are intended to accommodate more than 300 pupils. The central portion of the second floor is occupied by the fine assembly and study room of the normal school. It is about 60 by 85 feet in size, and can accommodate 250 single desks and chairs. The remainder of the floor contains the principal's office, recep- tion room, teachers' meeting room, retiring room, text-book room, library, and other recitation and work rooms. The third floor is largely devoted to the various departments of science, — including physics, chemistry, botany, geography, min- eralogy and zoology. One of the features is an excellent lecture room, with seats arranged in tiers, for lectures or similar work. Two fine rooms on the north side furnish admirable accommoda- tions for the work in drawing. One of the most conspicuous features of the building is found in the size and lighting of the rooms. In fact, it is hard to see how the lighting could be improved. The corridors are also no- ticeable for their width and cheerful aspect. The windows are many and lofty, and the glass is of the finest and clearest quality. The heating and ventilating plant is ample; the blackboards, entirely of slate, are generous in size ; combination gas and elec- tric chandeliers are provided for lighting ; from the principal's office speaking tubes radiate to all the important rooms, while a program clock, with its electric appliances, regulates the move- ments of the school. The interior finish throughout is of hand- some oak, and all the furniture of the building is in keeping. Upon the walls are many handsome pictures and other artistic decorations, provided by the State, by past students and teachers CD -< STATE NORMAL SCHOOL, SALEM. 9 of the school and by other generous friends, to whom due acknowl- edgment is made on another page. REQUIREMENTS FOR ADMISSION. Candidates for admission must have attained the age of sixteen years complete, if young women, and of seventeen years complete, if young men. They must present certificates of good moral character, and be free from any disease or infirmity which would unfit them for the office of teacher. They must be graduates of high schools whose courses of study have been approved by the Board of Education, or they must have received, to the satisfac- tion of the Board of Visitors and of the principal of the school, the equivalent of a high school education. Statements from the principal of the school of which the candidate is a graduate, written in clear and discriminating terms, are espe- cially desired, and will be accorded great weight in deciding the question of admission . Written Examinations . The written examination will embrace a single paper upon each of groups, I., II. and IV., with a maximum time allowance of two hours for each group ; and a single paper upon each of groups III. and V., with a maximum time allowance of one hour for each group. Group I. — Languages. (a) English. — The requirements in this department are based upon those generally agreed upon by the colleges and high techni- cal schools of New England. Applicants are strongly advised to read, either in school or by themselves, all the w^orks named; but, until further notice, candidates will not be rejected who pass a satisfactory examination upon one-half of those assigned, — the selection to be made by themselves or by their schools. JVb candidate will be accepted ivhose written English is notably deficient in clear and accurate expression, spelling, punctuation, idiom or division of paragraphs, or ichose spoken English exhibits faults so serious as to make it inexpedient for the normal school to attempt their correction. The candidate's English, therefore, in all oral and written examinations will be subject to the requirements implied in the foregoing statement, and marked accordingly. 10 STATE NOBMAL SCHOOL, SALEM. 1 . Heading and Practice. — This part of the examination will be upon the subject-matter and upon the lives of the authors, and its form will usually be the writing of brief paragraphs on each of several topics selected by the candidates from a considerable num- ber, and its chief purpose will be to test their power of clear and accurate expression. The books set for this part of the exam- ination will be : — 1901 and 1902. — Shakespeare's The Merchant of Venice; Pope's Iliad, Books I., VI., XXII. and XXIV. ; The Sir Roger de Coverley Papers in The Spectator ; Goldsmith's The Vicar of Wakefield; Coleridge's The Ancient Mariner; Scott's Ivanhoe; Cooper's The Last of the Mohicans; Tennyson's The Princess; Lowell's The Vision of Sir Launfal; George Eliot's Silas Marner. 2. Study and Practice. — This part of the examination pre- supposes a more careful study of each of the books named below. The examination will be upon subject-matter, form and structure, and will also test the candidates' ability to express their knowledge with clearness and accuracy. The books set for this part of the examination will be : — 1901 and 1902. — Shakespeare's Macbeth; Milton's Lycidas, Comus, U Allegro and 11 Penseroso ; Burke's Speech on Concilia- tion loith America; Macaulay's Essays on Milton and Addison. (b) One only of the three languages, — Latin, French and German. Translation at sight of simple prose, with questions on the usual forms and ordinary construction of the language. Group II. — Mathematics. . (a) Arithmetic. — Such an acquaintance with the subject as may be gained in a good grammar school. (b) Algebra. — The mastery of any text-book suitable for the youngest class in a high school, through cases of affected quad- ratic equations involving one unknown quantity. (c) Geometry. — The elements of plane geometry as presented in any high school text-book. While a fair acquaintance with ordinary book work in geometry will, for the present, be accepted, candidates are advised, so far as practicable, to do original work with both theorems and problems, and an opportunity will be offered them, by means of alternative questions, to test their ability in such work. STATE NOBMAL SCHOOL, SALEM. 11 Group III. — History and Geography. Any school text-book or United States history will enable can- didates to meet this requirement, provided they study enough of geography to illumine the history, and make themselves familiar with the grander features of government in Massachusetts and the United States. Collateral reading in United States history is strongly advised. Group IV. — Sciences. (a) Physical Geography . — The mastery of the elements of this subject, as presented in the study of geography in a good grammar school. If the grammar school work is supplemented by the study of some elementary text-book on physical geography, better prep- aration still is assured. (6) Physiology and Hygiene. — The elementary facts of anat- omy, the general functions of the various organs, the more obvious rules of health, and the more striking effects of alcoholic drinks, narcotics and stimulants upon those addicted to their use. (c), (d) and (e) Physics, Chemistry and Botany. — The ele- mentary principles of these subjects, so far as they may be pre- sented in the courses usually devoted to them in good high schools. Study of the foregoing sciences, or of some of them, with the aid of laboratory methods, is earnestly recommended. Group V. — Drawing and Music. (a) Drawing. — Mechanical and freehand drawing, — enough to enable the candidates to draw a simple object, like a box or a pyramid or a cylinder, with plan and elevation to scale, and to make a freehand sketch of the same in perspective. Also any one of the three topics, — form, color and arrangement. (b) Music. — The elementary principles of musical notation, such as an instructor should know in teaching singing in the schools. Ability to sing, while not required, will be prized as an additional qualification. Oral Examinations. Candidates will be questioned orally either upon some of the foregoing subjects or upon matters of common interest to them and the school, at the discretion of the examiners. In this inter- 12 STATE NORMAL SCHOOL, SALEM. view, the object is to gain some impression about the candidates' personal characteristics and their use of language, as well as to give them an opportunity to furnish any evicleuces of qualification that might not otherwise become known to their examiners. Any work of a personal, genuine and legitimate character that candi- dates have done in connection with any of the groups that are set for examination, and that is susceptible of visible or tangible presentation, may be offered at this time, and such work will be duly weighed in the final estimate, and may even determine it. To indicate the scope of this feature, the following kinds of pos- sible presentation are suggested, but the candidates may readily extend the list : — 1. A book of drawing exercises, — particularly such a book of exercises as one might prepare in following the directions in ''An Outline of Lessons in Drawing for Ungraded Schools," pre- pared under the direction of the Massachusetts Board of Educa- tion, or in developing any branch of that scheme. 2. Any laboratory note- book that is a genuine record of experi- ments performed, data gathered or work done, with the usual accompaniments of diagrams, observations and conclusions. 3. Any essay or article that presents the nature, successive steps and conclusion of any simple, personally conducted investi- gation of a scientific character, with such diagrams, sketches, tables and other helps as the character of the work may suggest. 4. An} 7 exercise book containing compositions, abstracts, analyses, or other written work that involves study in connection with the literature requirements of the examination. Any work of the kinds above specified, in order to receive con- sideration, must be identified as the icork of the student offering it, by the signature of the principal of his school or of the teacher under ivhose direction it teas done. General Remarks. In general, it should be said that a student who has faithfully performed the work required in a good statutory high school should be able to meet the requirements of these examinations. By section 2 of chapter 496 of the Acts of 1898, every city or town of 500 families is required to maintain a high school, properly taught and adequately equipped, in which one or more courses of STATE NOBMAL SCHOOL, SALEM. 13 study at least four years in length are offered. In such high schools instruction shall be given in certain designated subjects, "and in such additional subjects as may be required for the general purpose of training and culture, as icell as for the special purpose of preparing pupils for admission to Stale normal schools, technical schools and colleges." Towns having less than 500 families are required by section 3 of the same chapter to pay the tuition of qualified pupils in the high schools of other towns. All candidates are advised to bring as full statements of the work done during their high school courses, and of the degree of success which has crowned their efforts, as they can procure. A good record in the high school is of prime importance to all candi- dates. Such a record, and the evidences of independent work heretofore referred to, will go far to satisfy the examiners of the fitness of those who may not have met successfully all the require- ments of the written examination. Equivalents. Reasonable allowance in equivalents will be made in case a can- didate, for satisfactory reasons, has not taken a study named for examination. Successful experience in teaching will be taken into account, according to its amount and nature, in the determination of equivalents in the entrance examinations. Students who desire to offer equivalents are advised to correspond with the principal. Times of Admission. New classes will be admitted only at the beginning of the fall term, and, as the studies of the course are arranged progressively from that time, it is important that students shall present them- selves then for duty. In individual cases and for strong reasons exceptions to this requirement are permissible, but only after due examination, and upon the understanding that the admission shall be at a time convenient to the school, and to such classes only as the candidate is qualified to join. Preliminary Examination. 1. Candidates may be admitted to a preliminary examination a year in advance of their final examination, provided they offer 14 STATE NOBMAL SCHOOL, SALEM. themselves in one or more of the following groups, each group to be presented in full : — II. Mathematics. III. History and geography. IV. Sciences. V. Drawing and music. o Preliminary examinations can be taken in June only. Every candidate for a preliminary examination must present a certificate of preparation in the group, or groups chosen, or in the subjects thereof. (See blank at end of this catalogue.) 2. The group known as "I. Languages" must be reserved for the final examinations. It will doubtless be found generally ad- visable in practice that the group known as "IV. Sciences " should also be so reserved. Candidates for the final or complete examinations are earnestly advised to present themselves, so far as practicable, in June. Division of the final or complete examinations between June and September is permissible, but it is important both for the normal school and for the candidate that the work laid out for the Septem- ber examinations, which so closely precede the opening of the school, shall be kept clown to a minimum. General Two Years' Course. The general course of study is designed primarily for those who aim to teach in public schools below the high school grade. It comprises substantially the following subjects : — 1. Psychology, history of education, principles of education, methods of instruction and discipline, school organization and the school laws of Massachusetts. 2. Methods of teaching the following subjects : — (a) English, — reading, language, rhetoric, composition, litera- ture and history. (&) Mathematics, — arithmetic, book-keeping, elementary alge- bra and geometry. (c) Science, — elementary physics and chemistry, geography, physiology and hygiene, and the study of minerals, plants and animals . (d) Drawing, vocal music, physical culture and manual training. 3. Observation in the model schools and in other public schools. STATE NOBMAL SCHOOL, SALEM. 15 The course of study at this school is arranged upon the plan of putting into the first or junior year that work which does most to broaden the students' knowledge of subjects, leaving the applica- tion of this to the review of grammar school subjects in the second or senior year. But while this course, thoroughly pursued, must of necessity greatly broaden the students' knowledge of subject- matter, the work is all done in such a manner as to keep in con- stant view the professional aim of normal school study. The realization of the professional purpose is thus constantly increas- ing throughout the course, and is constantly more and more ab- sorbing the thought and attention of the student. Work in drawing, music, reading and calisthenics is continued throughout the entire two years. Students are sometimes found who are believed to be capable of good work, but, by reason of immaturity or previous lack of thor- oughness, are unable to complete the course in two years. In such cases the work is immediately arranged upon a basis of taking an extra term or year, as the case requires. Special Students. College graduates, graduates of normal schools and other per- sons of equivalent attainments, also persons of maturity who have had successful experience in teaching, may, by arrangement with the principal, select a year's work from the regular program, embracing not less than twenty recitation periods per week, and including the course in psychology and pedagogy, and receive a certificate for the same upon its satisfactory completion. Prompt and regular attendance will be exacted of these students, as well as of those in the usual course. A definite statement of the pur- pose of the applicant in desiring to enter the school will be required, and those ivho do not intend to remain at least one half-year are requested not to apply. The design of the school does not include the admission of tran- sient students, for the purpose of taking partial or special courses, except in cases which are really exceptional. Personal culture, for its own sake, is not the end for which the school receives its students. It exists and will be administered for the training and improvement of teachers, and all its facilities will be put to their utmost use for the advantage of teachers. Thus, during recent 16 STATE NOBMAL SCHOOL, SALEM. years, many teachers have been allowed to attend the exercises in selected departments, — so far as the privilege could be granted without injury to regular class work, — although their names have not appeared in the catalogue as students. In other cases, it is sometimes found possible for those who have had experience in teaching, without a previous normal course, to enter the school and derive great benefit from a half-year's work. Some of our most earnest students have been of this class. But special students w r ho do not intend to identify themselves with the school are not desired. Neither is there room for those who do not have a serious purpose of study and self-improvement, but who wish rather to secure a brief nominal membership in a nor- mal school, in order to obtain a better position. THE MODEL DEPARTMENT* In co-operation with the school committee of the city of Salem, there are now maintained in the rooms set apart for that purpose in the normal school building, schools of the first, second, third, fourth, fifth and sixth grades. During the current year there is also a kindergarten, which is maintained by the co-operation of the citi- zens of South Salem with the normal school. It is expected that the system will be extended from time to time, until it embraces the nine grades below the high school. The teachers are nominated by the principal of the normal school, with the approval of the Board of Visitors, and are elected by the city school committee. They have all been chosen with reference to their special fitness for the grades named, and on account of conspicuous success in their previous experience. The aim has been to reproduce in these schools, as nearly as possible, actual public school conditions. Hence the pupils are not a picked company of children, but are taken without selection from limits established by the local committee. The schools are, however, kept at a reasonable size, and they will not be crowded. The school- rooms themselves are of ample dimensions, well lighted, thoroughly ventilated, furnished with approved furniture and other appliances for work, and equipped with sanitary con- veniences of the best kind. By the generosity and interest of many parents, they are also provided with beautiful decorations. H O m O >- 3D o o o o o r~ o o STATE NOBMAL SCHOOL, SALEM. 17 The instruction is given by regular teachers. The schools are intended to be model or observation schools. The students of the senior class and those taking special courses in the normal school will, under the direction of the faculty, be allowed to observe the work. Thus by the observation of good instruction and manage- ment, valuable assistance will be received in the work of the nor- mal school, and it is believed that its students will be greatly profited by this addition to the facilities heretofore afforded. AIM AND SCOPE OF THE COURSE OF STUDY, Psychology and Pedagogy. The course in psychology and pedagogy is conducted by the principal of the school, and will extend throughout the senior year. During the first half-year the emphasis will be laid upon psychology, and during the second half-year upon pedagogy ; but the two departments in reality constitute a single closely connected course. The work will be done partly by means of lectures, in part by recitations, in part by writing, while copious and pertinent references will constantly be given to the best literature upon the various topics that are treated. The aim will be to secure a clear and sufficient understanding of (1) the processes by which knowledge is acquired and elabo- rated, (2) the sources of interest and attention, and (3) the func- tions and training of the will. The development of the various faculties of the mind and the relation of different branches of study to this process will receive careful attention. The work will be done so as to secure a good grasp of what is really valuable to a teacher, rather than to spend time upon what is of only speculative interest. The various sources of psychological facts — introspec- tion, observation of mental phenomena, the study of literature and physiological observations — are all recognized as having impor- tant uses in the study of the human mind. But this study will not be made purely or even chiefly academic. Following it in part, and in considerable part carried along parallel with it, will be its application to the actual duties of the teacher in the daily work of the school-room. The instructor will utilize his own varied experience as a teacher and supervisor of schools to make this work of practical value in organizing, instructing and managing schools. 18 STATE NOBMAL SCHOOL, SALEM At the same time there will be a serious attempt to arouse in the students an intelligent appreciation of our indebtedness to great educational leaders for their apprehension of sound princi- ples and for inspiration to the teacher's work. The principal believes that much of the success of a teacher depends upon the ideals with which the work is undertaken. Con- sequently it is no small part of the duty of a normal school to see that its students take a right attitude toward their work ; that they fully understand and appreciate the nature and extent of the in- fluence of the school upon the child ; and that the duty of study and growth is one constantly resting upon teachers, This depart- ment will aim faithfully to perform its duty in these respects. The principal also aims to meet the members of the junior class at occasional intervals during the year. At these meetings the nature of the exercises will be determined by a variety of consider- ations. One of the objects in view is mutual acquaintance; another is to impress upon the new-comers the fact that the nor- mal school is a professional school, and that, therefore, its ideals and methods must differ somewhat from the schools in which the students have previously been trained. English and American Literature. Four periods per week throughout the first year of the course are devoted to this work. This assignment of time is based upon the belief that literature constitutes a very important branch of one of the great divisions of thought-giving material, and that it is worthy of an earlier and more extended treatment than it com- monly receives in the public schools. It is believed that it is reasonable to expect a marked growth of appreciative power and insight from the high school graduates who constitute the junior class in this school. It is difficult to estimate justly and surely the increase of such ability, but the prime aim is to promote it. Such a result will make the future teachers more inspiring and helpful to their pupils ; and, while the course cannot fail to broaden the acquaintance and sympathy of the normal students with all kinds of good literature, the methods of using the same in all kinds and grades of schools will not be overlooked. Believing that literature should and will hold a more prominent place as subject-matter in school courses of study, there will be an STATE NORMAL SCHOOL, SALEM. 19 attempt so to conduct this department as to formulate a course in literature suitable to the interest and profit of children in the primary and grammar schools. This attempt has often been made, but there is hardly as yet so general an agreement that valuable results may not be expected from further consideration and ex- periment. Chemistry and Physics. Objects. — (1) Training the pupil to observe carefully and ac- curately ; to express what has been observed, — orally, by writing and by drawing ; to draw correct conclusions from his own obser- vations and from data collected by others ; to follow directions ; to manipulate apparatus skilfully 7 ; and to acquire habits of care- fulness, accuracy and neatness. (2) An acquaintance with the most important facts of the science ; certain laws and principles based upon these facts ; some practical applications of these prin- ciples in machines and appliances useful to man ; a knowledge of certain manipulations and processes, and the physical and chemi- cal properties, uses and manufacture of the more common elemen- tary and compound substances. (3) Familiarity with the method of teaching by experiments ; the art of correct questioning ; and ability to stand before others and guide their thinking. Means. — The ends enumerated are secured by a course of ex- periments selected and arranged so that most of the work can be clone by each individual. Each pupil is provided with a note- book, in which is kept a record of the daily work done, consisting of the observations, which are recorded at once, the conclusions reached, and drawings and diagrams of the apparatus used. Each one is provided with a separate closet at the laboratory tables, containing most of the supplies and apparatus for the course. The chemical rooms are provided with twenty-eight fume closets, allowing each member of the class to perform many experiments usually done by the teacher. Both laboratories connect with a large lecture room, provided with roller shutters for darkening the room, and an electric lantern. The pupils have considerable practice in teaching before their classmates, and examining them on the experimental work. In most cases the exercises given by the pupil teacher are not dupli- cates of those given by the regular teacher. 20 STATE NORMAL SCHOOL, SALEM. As the objects mentioned above can only be attained by direct contact with nature herself, in forces and materials, text-books are not used as such, but as books of reference. The greater part of the work in chemistry and physics is quali- tative, but a sufficient amount of quantitative work in both sub- jects is taken to give skill in accurate measuring and weighing. 1. Chemistry. — Chemical force, — manifestations of, degrees, distance at which it acts, relation of cohesion to chemical affinity, effect of chemical affiinty on the quantity of matter. Processes, — solution, crystallization, precipitation, nitration, decantation, distillation, vaporization, evaporation, ebullition, sub- limation, analysis, synthesis, metathesis, ignition. Study of the elements and their compounds, — H, O, N, CI, S, C, K, Na, P, Fe, Cu, Pb, Ag, Zn, Au, Al, Pt, Sn, Ca, Mg, Mn. Such compounds of these elements as are of use in common life and in the arts. Study of industries and the manufacture of chemicals. Theoretical chemistry based upon and derived from the experi- ments in the course. Short course in qualitative analysis. Constant practice in writing reactions. 2. Physics. — Matter, — states, divisions, chemical and physi- cal changes, properties. Force. Motion. Resistance. Momen- tum. Application of force in machines. Forces acting together in the same direction, in opposite directions, at an angle, in paral- lel directions. Gravitation. Gravity. Laws of falling bodies. Cohesion. Adhesion. Specific gravity. Atmospheric pressure. Main facts and principles of heat, light, sound, electricity and magnetism. Botany. The subject is pursued throughout the year, and as far as pos- sible the different phases of plant life are studied in their season. In the fall, the flower, fruit and leaf are taken. The structure of the flower and the adaptation of its parts to carry out its func- tions of producing seed lead to the study of the fruit and a com- prehension of the relation of the fruit to the flower. The structure of the fruit shows its adaptation to the protection and the dispersal of seed. In the observation of the flower and the fruit, the mutual dependence of plants and animals is considered. The dispersal of H IE ~U I -< CO o CD o 3> H O STATE NOBMAL SCHOOL, SALEM. 21 the seed suggests the completion of the work of the plant for the season, and the change in color and the fall of the leaf and other signs of preparation of plants for the winter are noted. At the same time the preparation of plants for another season's growth is observed. As early as possible, before plants out of doors have awakened, buds and seeds are studied in the school-room. The structure and mode of growth of several types of seeds are observed, and the life history of the higher plants and the relation of plants to their surroundings are illustrated by many experiments performed by the students. Later, when the spring flowers come, several types of highly differentiated plants are studied, to show the peculiarities in structure and the reasons for their variation from the simpler forms previously studied. The common shade trees are observed throughout the year, so that pupils may become familiar with them by noting individuali- ties in appearance and manner of growth. As the aim of this course is to give a course which may be adapted to use in common schools, only those forms of plant life which can be studied with the naked eye or a small lens are con- sidered in detail. However, since it is important that a teacher should have an idea of the evolution that has taken place in the plant as well as in the animal world, considerable laboratory work with typical forms of non-seed bearing plants is given. The brake, the horse-tail, the pitch pine and some form of grass are taken in detail. The necessary apparatus and a sufficient number of copies of the standard works on botany are at the command of the pupils. As many field trips are made as the large number of students permits, for it is believed that the greatest value in the study of nature consists in bringing the student face to face with nature. Plants which cannot be studied in their natural surroundings are brought by the students from all parts of the country, so that opportunity is given for the identification of many plants. During the last half of the year, when students are somewhat accustomed to methods of working, and when those who have not previously studied botany have learned some of the elements of the subject, the students, under the direction of the instructors, give most of the class exercises. 22 STATE NORMAL SCHOOL, SALEM. Geology and Geography. Geology. — The aim of the work in" geology is to acquire that knowledge of the minerals and rocks and the forces at work upon them which shall be of most value to the students in their sub- sequent work in geography and as teachers in the elementary schools. The course includes a study of the most common min- erals and rocks, the formation of soil, and the work of the waves, streams and ice in wearing away, transporting and depositing material. Advantage is taken of the proximity of the ocean in studying the action of the waves upon the land, and the relation between the irregularities of the coast line, and the kind, structure and arrangement of the rocks. The neighborhood of Salem offers also unusual opportunities for the study of the various evidences of glacial action. Frequent field trips and out-door lessons are planned throughout the course, to study the illustrative material so close at hand. A fully equipped geological laboratory, includ- ing a well-selected and typical synoptic collection of rocks and minerals, and a good library, provide excellent facilities for in-door work. The first lessons consist of a very simple and elementary study of the minerals, rocks and soils, following the plan of work car- ried out in the lower grades. The aim here is to exemplify and to impress the method to be used with children in this department of nature study. Whatever will interest the child is seized upon to lead the way to a further study and appreciation of the uses and relations of the minerals, rocks and soils to the plants and animals and to man. Following this work, which has served to introduce the normal student to the field of geology and to impress the importance of the study of the earth materials in the elemen- tary schools, comes the more formal and technical examination of the principal ores and rock-forming minerals. This study is intended to equip the prospective teacher with the breadth of edu- cation along these lines so necessary for the intelligent presentation of even the elementary facts. The distinguishing characteristics, the occurrence, the uses and the history of the most important minerals and rocks are studied in a thorough and careful manner. The reactions before the blowpipe and with chemicals are used in addition to the physical properties as confirmatory tests. Each student is assigned a special place in the geological laboratory, and m O m O O TO I -<. za O O STATE NOBMAL SCHOOL, SALEM. 23 furnished with apparatus and with specimens for the experimental study of the minerals and rocks. An accurate and specific knowl- edge is demanded in this part of the work. Geography. — The work in geography is made as comprehensive as the limits of the course will permit. The main facts of meteor- ology and the observatiou of astronomical phenomena are studied as an additional preparation for the teacher of geography. In the study of meteorology the plan includes the local observation of the weather elements, the use and explanation of the barometer, the maximum and minimum thermometer, the hygrometer, the careful study of the daily weather maps, and the instruction in the more general relations of the science. The astronomical work consists in the recognition of the important constellations, and the position and movements throughout the year of the sun, moon, planets and stars. The work just outlined and the work of the previous year in geology prepare the way for an intelligent and professional study of a wide range of geographical material. Particular attention is given to the planning and discussion of lessons for children, in the study of relief, drainage and coast forms, climate, soil, productions and people. Two principal cen- tres in geography are recognized, around which the various facts cluster, — the natural and the human. The natural side of geog- raphy, the physiography, includes relief, drainage and coastal forms and the various phenomena of climate and soils. The human side includes many most important topics, — people, occu- pations, and political institutions. But these two phases, separated for convenience in reference, are not to be considered as existing apart. A study of the earth as a whole, of the different continents and of the leading nations, as taken up with children, is discussed as thoroughly as time will allow. The use of the moulding board, sand table, pictures and other illustrative material ; lessons in map projection, the full and intelligent reading of maps ; the time and place of the text-book and its use and abuse, are considered in their proper places. Abundant and valuable material and facilities for geographic study are provided. An accurate large scale model of southern New England, made by Howells, shows in a remarkable degree the relief, drainage and coastal forms of that region. A set of the Harvard geographical models are in themselves a revelation of 24 STATE NOBMAL SCHOOL, SALE 31. geographical knowledge. The Sydow-Habenicht series of physi- cal wall maps, au abundant supply of coast survey charts, and large scale topographical maps are only a part of the material available to the student. Out-door lessons, adapted to the grade in which the work belongs, are made a feature of the course. The normal school pupils have opportunity for watching the work developed and exemplified in the classes of children in the model school. The fact that all this material is to be used in teaching will constantly be kept in mind, and the course is planned with close reference to its value to the work of instructing pupils in the grades wherein such topics are usually introduced. Biology and Physiology. Biology. — The course in biology prepares the student for a clearer and more comprehensive understanding of the anatomy, physiology and hygiene of the human body. Beginning with the lowest forms, the one-celled animals, the order of evolution is followed through the more complex organisms to man. A thorough study is made of a type of each class. This is succeeded by a careful consideration of other forms related to the type. By frequent dissections, the student becomes familiar with the animals studied as a whole, and with the structure, position, relation and function of the various organs. The materials used are live specimens, mounted, and alcoholic specimens and diagrams. The laboratory work is supplemented by reading and drawing. The students have access to the Peabody Academy of Science, one of the finest collections of its kind in the country. As many living forms as possible are kept in the class room. By this means, those who are to become teachers are instructed as to what forms may be provided, and how they should be cared for. In the spring, opportunities are given for the pupils to become familiar with the common birds and their songs. The aim of the course is to prepare the students so to instruct the children, as to foster in them a greater love and sympathy for the animals, a consciousness of what we owe to them, and an in- creasing interest in observing their habits, their uses and their intelligence. In no better way can they be brought into a close relation with out-door life. Rousing the interest and leading the STATE NORMAL SCHOOL, SALEM. 25 child to cultivate the habit of observation puts him iu a position to pursue the work independently later on. Physiology. — The course in physiology, being a continuation of the work in biology, is carried on in much the same manner. In the introductory work, the position, carriage, height and weight of the body are first considered. Then follows the study of the principal parts, the organs of sense, the general structure of the body, the internal organs, and the effect of alcohol and tobacco. The advanced work includes the study of the various parts of the organism as grouped into systems, — the respiratory, the circula- tory, the digestive, the excretory, the muscular, the osseous and the nervous system, — and of the special senses. Definite direc- tions are given for treatment in cases of emergency. The course is intended to fit teachers to secure and preserve a sound body for themselves, through an intelligent appreciation of the structure, arrangement and function of the different systems and organs, and to enable them to train children under their care to form habits which will conduce to a healthy, free action of their own bodies. For this purpose special stress is laid on hygiene. The subjects of food, clothing, bathing and rest are considered, as well as the effect of muscular action upon the organism as a whole and upon the special organs. The work is facilitated by the use of a human skeleton, a life- sized manikin, microscopic slides, and dissections of internal organs. The laboratory work and the assigned reading cover those points in anatomy and physiology which are of the most practical value. At intervals the pupils prepare exercises suitable for the gram- mar and primary grades, and conduct them in class. Geometry. Modern education decrees that geometry, dealing with the every- day properties of size and shape, shall have a place in the curricu- lum of the grammar school. The pupil, by handling, observing, measuring and comparing the various objects about him, acquires pleasantly and permanently the fundamental ideas and facts of the science, and lays the foundation for an intelligent study of demon- strative geometry in the high school. "The sum of two sides of a triangle is greater than the third side " is a fact of real signifi- cance to the boy who in the grammar school experimented in the 26 STATU NOBMAL SCHOOL, SALEM. construction of triangles, perhaps in the school yard, and discov- ered for himself that with certain given lengths for the sides there was no difficulty in obtaining a triangle, but that with certain other lengths it was impossible to get the desired figure. It is said that the history of a science reveals the method of teaching it. Surely, then, the way into geometry is "through the concrete," and the laboratory method is the natural mode of progress. The term's work in geometry is planned to give the pupil this modern outlook over the geometrical field, to take up with him the history of the science, to discuss the selection and adaptation of material for grammar school work, to consider and exemplify methods of teaching the more important topics, and to do as much of the practical work suggested as is possible. Incidentally in the process his own knowledge is broadened and freshened and takes on a new meaning, but his attention is focussed throughout upon method. The discussion of a curriculum for the grammar school involves the examination of modern text-books in concrete geome- try, with which the school library is liberally supplied. Illustra- tive apparatus for use in teaching t includes complete sets of geometrical forms, mensuration blocks, level, foot and yard meas- ures, etc. To facilitate the work of measurement, a detailed study is made of the metric system, and thereafter the metric units are employed to a large extent in both laboratory and field work. Every help is provided in the way of apparatus, the outfit including meter sticks, metric tapes and rulers, scales, the various liquid and dry measures, and weights. For use in the field there are levelling staff, transit, compass, surveyor's pins, rods, etc. ; while for the laboratory each pupil is provided with ruler, triangle, scissors, dividers, protractor, etc. Algebra. The aim of the term's work is primarily to discuss and test methods of teaching algebra in the grammar school ; and inci- dentally to supplement and confirm the pupil's knowledge of the subject-matter. The transition from arithmetic is made a simple and natural one, and the fact is emphasized that in both studies we are dealing with numbers. The initial attack is made upon problems. The pupil is intro- duced at once to the algebraic solution and the notion of known m m 3> -< o O O STATE NORMAL SCHOOL, SALEM. 27 and unknown numbers, and the fact is impressed that in grammar school work in algebra the aim is to train the judgment of the pupil in a two-fold way : (1) to grasp the conditions of the prob- lem and translate them into an algebraic sentence, — the equation ; and (2) to solve the equation. Much of this work, especially at the outset, should be oral. Certain problems demand concrete illustration, e.g., work problems, courier problems, etc. These, to the average child, are intelligible only after he sees enacted in the school-room, by his companions, the little story involved in the problem. This feature receives much thought and attention. Algebra is the science of the equation. Through problems the pupil comes naturally into association with this algebraic form, and by continued practice he acquires facility in solution ; wherefore the work w r ith problems should be the main feature of grammar school algebra. As means toward solution of the equation, the fundamental operations and connected topics are studied in detail, with special reference to methods of teaching. United States History. Sufficient training in United States history will be given to indi- cate the right methods of studying and teaching history in general. As time will admit, and for purposes of illustration, selected periods or events of our national history will be studied. In con- nection with this department there will also be a study of our State and national governments. A connected series of lessons, begin- ning with the lowest grades, will be outlined for the purpose of showing how, by what means and to what extent the elements of history, and, later, history itself, may be taught in the different periods of school life. Drawing. Drawing being one of the studies required in all the larger towns and cities, it is the aim of this department of the school to give to the student a knowledge of art for art's sake, and at the same time to emphasize its value in all the other departments of study in the public schools. Eealizing its industrial and aesthetic value to the teacher, the subject is treated in as broad a manner as the course permits. Drawing is studied under these three topics, — structure, enrich- ment and appearance : (1) Structure, comprising measurement, 28 STATE NOBMAL SCHOOL, SALEM. geometry, projection, development and structural design; (2) enrichment, including color, historic ornament and design; (3) appearance, treating model and object drawing, nature drawing, color and picture study. No definite outline for the various grades of the public schools is given the students, but outlines for the work in the model schools are planned from month to month, and the students have the opportunity of observing and assisting in concluctiug the lessons. The courses in the other departments of the normal school, as well as the cycle of the year, dictate in a great degree the subject to be taken in the drawing and the time for that special branch. In September the classes begin the study of color, drawing of flowers, leaves, trees, fruit and seed ; also the study and drawing of birds, moths and shells. Throughout the year this method is followed, the intercourse with nature giving a keen appreciation of the beautiful. The study of landscape drawing and composition is related to the illustrative work for literature, and the mechanical branches assist in drawing of apparatus for chemistry and physics. The historic art and picture study are closely related to the geography and history. In relating the drawing to the other departments, the aim is to remember the scientific value of the drawing and at the same time to emphasize the necessity of artistic rendering, the importance of good composition, proportion and unity. As a result of the art training in the normal school there should come a broader culture, an appreciation of beauty of form and color, and some ability to express and create the beautiful ; an appreciation of the practical value to the child, awakening thought, holding the attention and giving a free and spontaneous mode of expression. Language and Grammar. During the first half of the year the class discuss the best meth- ods of training children to speak and write English correctly and fluently. Suggestions are given concerning descriptions in con- nection with nature study, stories and descriptions from suitable pictures, copying, dictation, letter-writing, and reproduction of daily lessons in either study, and of classic stories, such as fables, myths, legends, and historical and biographical tales. An attempt STATE NOBMAL SCHOOL, SALEM. 29 is made to awaken the class to a knowledge of their own deficien- cies in the use of English, and to show them the way to im- provement. Especial attention is paid to simple narration and description, both oral and written. The course in elementary language lessons is followed by a course in technical grammar, in which an effort is made to show that rules governing speech should be evolved from a knowledge of forms already acquired. By carefully graded steps the students are led to understand the sentence and its construction, the classi- fication of words from the observation of their uses in the sen- tence, inflection, analysis and parsing. Members of the class present the various topics to a class of pupils selected from their own number, and the best method of proceeding with younger pupils is discussed. Music. The aim in this department will be to give to normal students thorough instruction in such theory of music as will apply to the primary and grammar grades of the public schools. Students will be made acquainted with the most advanced methods according to the principles of education for the presentation of the above. The subjects considered will be as follows : — Tune. — Presentation and development of major scale. Repre- sentation of same in nine common keys on ladder and staff. De- velopment of two-voice work. Presentation and development of chromatic tones approached from above and below. Development of three-voice work. Presentation and development of minor scales, through the relative minor, by means of ladder and staff representations. Presentation of F cleff with staff representation in nine keys. Study of intervals applied to diatonic and chro- matic modulation. Time. — Development of sense of rhythm. Development of two, three, four and six part measures, without division of pulsa- tion, two sounds to the pulsation, one and one-half pulsations, rested half-pulsation, four sounds to the pulsation, three sounds to the pulsation, various fractional divisions of the pulsation, synco- pation. Representation of same with notes, rests and other signs, and application to staff. Technique. — Union of tune and time. Nomenclature. Voice training. Technicalities of notation. 30 STATE NOBMAL SCHOOL, SALEM. ^Esthetics. — Intelligent, artistic expression of both exercises and songs, brought out by accentuation, phrasing and shading. Tone color. Tests. — Ability to recognize, sing and represent tones and measures. Ability to sing at sight. As a help to the broader musical culture of students, a weekly exercise in chorus singing of well-chosen selections will be partici- pated in by the entire school. Reading and Voice Training. The work of this department must necessarily be two-fold : (1) the personal training and culture of the student, and (2) the practi- cal training in methods adapted to teach reading in primary and grammar schools. The object of oral reading is to give to others the thoughts and feelings found and suggested in written or printed language. This requires more than the mechanical pronunciation of recog- nized words. The reader must °et behind the words to the thoughts which they represent ; he must realize and appreciate this thought; and then, by the voice, awaken a sympathetic re- sponse from others. During the first year the work is directed toward the personal training of the students. The physiological conditions of the vocal organs are considered, i.e., the functions of the chest, larynx, pharynx and nares. Exercises in breathing and tone production are practised, for full, pure and sympathetic tones. Exercises in articulation are given, for clearness and distinctness of utterance. Poems and prose selections are studied analytically, the object ever being to get and give not only the sense of the words, but also the sympathetic response to both thought and spirit that true read- ing will produce in reader and hearer. In the second year the work is essentially directed toward the pedagogical phase of the subject. To some extent vocal exercises and analytical readings will be continued, but the object of the work is to train the student to teach reading in primary and grammar schools. Methods — including phonetics — will be dis- cussed and practised, observations and written reports of reading lessons in various grades of schools will be required. Outlines showing the development of lesson plans, and lesson plans showing >- O LU I STATE NOBMAL SCHOOL, SALEM. 31 the development of subject-matter in different grades will be made. The narration of children's stories will be practised, reference reading will be required and text-books reviewed. Physical Training. The course in physical training, based On the Ling system, is, in theory and practice, closely related to the practical part of the physiology work. Its aim in theory is to give the students a knowledge of muscular action and the distribution of blood to the various organs ; and in practice to correct faulty positions in sitting, staodingjand walk- ing, by a development of the chest and right carriage of the chest and head. Special stress is laid upon proper breathing. The spacious gymnasium is equipped with stall bars and benches, double boms, jumping standards, balance beams, vertical ropes, a Swedish ladder and a horse. The drill includes floor work, exercises with apparatus, and gymnastic games. The floor work includes all the fundamental positions of the body, as bending, twisting, jumping, running and marching. The rhythm, of the gymnastic movements is an impor- tant feature of the work. The military precision of the drill is relieved by gymnastic games. These train the students to quick- ness of thought and motion, and serve as a relaxation from mental and bodily tension. The game of basket ball arouses enthusiasm and gives added interest to the regular work. From time to time the members of the senior class conduct the exercises for practice in teaching. GENERAL INFORMATION- The Location and Attractions of Salem. No place in north-eastern Massachusetts is more easily acces- sible than Salem. It is on the main line of the eastern division of the Boston & Maine Railroad system, connecting also with the Saugus Branch at Lynn. A branch road to Wakefield Junction connects the city with the western division. There is also direct communication with Lowell, Lawrence, Haverhill, Rockport, Mar- blehead and intervening points. Trains are frequent and con- venient. Salem is also the centre of an extensive network of 32 STATE NORMAL SCHOOL, SALEM. electric railways, which greatly increase the convenience of travel within a radius of ten or fifteen miles. Students coming daily to Salem on the steam cars can obtain season tickets at greatly reduced rates. The local electric road also carries students to and from the school at half-fare, under certain conditions. Salem is the centre of many interesting historical associations, and within easy reach are the scenes of more important and stirring events than can be found in auy other equal area of our country. The scenery, both of seashore and country, in the neighborhood, is exceedingly attractive. There are many libra- ries, besides the free public library, and curious and instructive collections belonging to various literary and antiquarian organiza- tions, to which access may be obtained at a slight expense. Lec- tures are frequent and inexpensive. The churches of the city represent all the religious denominations that are common in New England. The Management of the School. The matter of discipline, as that term is used with reference to school management, does not enter into the administration of this school. Each student is allowed and is encouraged to exercise the largest degree of personal liberty consistent with the rights of others. The teachers aim to be friends and leaders rather than governors and masters. They will not spare advice, admonition and reproof, if needed ; but their work in such lines will be done with individuals, and in the most helpful and generous spirit. The students, who, after full and patient trial, are found unworthy of such consideration, are safely presumed to be unfit and unlikely to become successful teachers, and w T ill be removed from the school. Others, also, who, by no fault of their own, but by the misfortune of conspicuous inaptitude, through physical or mental deficien- cies, for the work of teaching, will be advised to withdraw and will not be graduated. Expenses, Aid, Board, Etc. Tuition is free to all residents of Massachusetts who declare their intention to teach in the public schools of this Commonwealth. Non-residents of this State who attend from and after the begin- ning of the school year in September, 1901, will be required to STATE NOBMAL SCHOOL, SALEM. 33 pay at the beginning of each half-year the sum of twenty-five dol- lars to the principal for the use of the school. Text-books and supplies are free, as in the public schools. Articles used in school work which students may desire to own will be furnished at cost. Students who come to Salem to board are advised to brino- with them such text-books of recent date as they may own. To assist those students, residents of the State, who find it difficult to meet the expenses of the course, pecuniary aid is fur- nished by the State to a limited extent. Such students will be required to satisfy the principal that the} T sfand in need of such assistance. This aid is not, however, furnished to residents of Salem, nor during the first half-year of attendance at the school. The expense of board is moderate ; two students rooming to- gether can usually find accommodations within easy distance of the school, including light and heat, at prices from three dollars and fifty cents each per week and upward. A record of places where board may be obtained is kept at the school, and reasonable aid will be given to students who are seeking boarding places. It is advisable to make inquiries at least some time before the begin- ning of the school year. Students boarding in Salem or vicinity, away from their own homes, are regarded as especially subject to the supervision of the teachers of the school. They will not be allowed to remain in boarding places which are distinctly unfavorable to proper atten- tion to their school duties, or to absent themselves from school, except by reason of sickness or by permission previously received. A lunch counter is maintained in the building, from which is served at noon each school day a good variety of wholesome and attractive food at very reasonable prices. The Library and Reading Room. The school is well equipped with books of reference, and its general library, which is especially strong in works of history, biography, pedagogy, poetry and dramatic and miscellaneous liter- ature, contains 3,656 volumes, exclusive of a large number of public documents and sample text-books covering a period of many years. The best periodicals of the day are also kept on file. There is a complete card catalogue by titles and authors, and a system of references by topics is also in process of preparation. 34 STATE NOBMAL SCHOOL, SALEM. No needless restrictions are placed upon the use of the library and reading room, and the students are encouraged to resort to it freely and constantly. Promptness and Punctuality. These are qualities absolutely essential to successful work in schools. So many of the students of this school board at home and travel to and from school on the steam and electric cars, that it has been found advisable to give especial attention to the evils of absence and tardiness. A printed circular, in which the regulations and suggestions which have been found very help- ful are formulated, will be sent to all persons who express an intention of attending as students. Lectures. Since the issue of the last annual catalogue the teachers and students of the school have had the privilege of listening to the following lectures : — 1900. March 24. Supt. Samuel T. Dutton, Brookline. " By-products of Education." March 27. Mr. Henry T. Bailey, North Scituate. " Applied Drawing. 11 April 21. Rev. Dewitt S. Clark, D.D., Salem. " Roger Williams, the Puritan Liberal." May 5. Prof. Edward S. Morse, Salem. " Glimpses of Insect Life." May 29. Mr. Walter Sargent, Boston. " The Influence of Art." June 27 (Annual Graduation). —Hon. Mason S. Stone, Montpelier, Vt. " Present Needs for Future Ends. 1 ' December 8. December 15. 1901. January 5. 12. 19. Prof. Edward S. Morse, Salem. A course of five lectures upon " Evolution." January 29. Mr. Henry T. Bailey, North Scituate. "The Ideals of Education." STATE NOBMAL SCHOOL, SALEM. 35 A public meeting, for parents and others especially interested in the kindergarten, was held Dec. 7, 1900, which was addressed by Mrs. Susan S. Harriman of Boston, on "The True Meaning of the Kindergarten." The Salem Normal Association. There is an organization of the students and teachers of the school, named as above, which holds triennial meetings. The last meeting was held July 3, 1900, and was very largely attended. At that meeting it was voted to defer the next meeting until 1904, when the usual reunion will be combined with the celebration of the semi-centennial anniversary of the school. In anticipation of this interesting event, a general catalogue of all former students is in preparation. Information relating to students, — their teaching or other occupations, present residence, marriage, death or other important events, — will be thankfully received by the principal. The date and other important facts relating to the meeting of 1904 will be announced hereafter. The officers of the association for the current term are as fol- lows : — President. — Dr. W. P. Beckwith, Salem, Principal of the School. Vice-President. — Miss Harriet L. Martin, Salem (Class XXIII.). First Secretary.— Mrs. Abbie R. Hood, Beverly (Class LVIL). Second Secretary. — Miss Daisy C. Sawtelle, Peabody (Class LXVIIL). Treasurer. — Miss Maud S. Wheeler, Salem (Class LVIL). Directors. — Miss Mary E. Webb, Salem (Class III.); Miss Jessie P. Learoyd, Danvers (Class LI.) ; Miss Mary A. Comey, Lynn (Class LXIX.) ; Miss Martha P. Ober, Salem (Class XLVII.) ; Miss E. Adelaide Towle, Salem (Class XXVIII.) . Employment for Graduates. The increase in the number of normal graduates employed as teachers in Massachusetts has been, especially during the past fifteen years, very much greater than the increase in the number of teachers as a whole. At the present time only one- third of all the teachers in the State are normal graduates, and the demand for such is steadily increasing. In fact, the demand exceeds the supply, and the principal of this school has several times been asked to recommend candidates for positions, and found himself 36 STATE NOBMAL SCHOOL, SALEM. unable to do so because he was uot aware of suitable candidates who were not already employed. While the school does not under- take to guarantee positions to its graduates, it is yet true that it is a very rare occurrence for promising graduates to be without positions six months after their graduation. The principal takes pleasure in assisting graduates in obtaining such positions as they are qualified to fill, and is glad to be informed by school authori- ties of the degree of success which has attended the efforts of former students. Summer Institute. For the past four summers, during the early part of July, an institute has been held in the building, under the auspices of the State Board of Education and the North Shore Summer School Association. These institutes have been largely attended, and there is probably no doubt of their continuance. As yet, the arrangements for 1901 have not been completed, but the session will not be less than one week in length. Circulars may be obtained, as soon as they are ready, at the school, or by address- ing James W. MacDonald at Stoneham, Frank E. Hobart at Mai- den, or Adelbert L. S afford at Beverly. Scholarships for Graduates. There are offered at Harvard University eight scholarships, each of an annual value of one hundred and fifty dollars, for the benefit of students in the Lawrence Scientific School who are graduates of any reputable normal school in the United States. General Notices. All interested persons, especially those connected with any phase of educational work, are cordially invited to visit the school, to inspect its building and equipment, or to attend the exercises in its class rooms or model schools, at any time and without cere- mony. Superintendents and other school officials are requested to send to the school copies of their reports, courses of study, and other publications of common interest. The courtesy will be appreciated and reciprocated. STATE NOBMAL SCHOOL, SALEM. 37 CONTRIBUTORS TO THE DECORATIONS OF THE BUILDING* The Commonwealth of Massachu- setts. The Salem Normal Association. Mr. George R. Chapman. Richard Edwards, LL.D. Mrs. C. O. Hood. Mr. James F. Almy. Miss Annie M. Phelps. The Class of February, 1857. The Class of February, 1858. The Class of July, 1858. The Class of February, 1859. The Class of July, 1859. The Class of February, 1860. The Class of July, 1861. The Class of January, 1883. The Class of June, 1888. The Class of June, 1891. The Class of June, 1896. The Class of January, 1897. The Class of June, 1897. The Class of 1898. The Class of 1899. The Class of 1900. The Class of 1901. Other teachers and graduates, and others. The following citizens of Salem have generously contributed to the decorations of the model school-rooms : — Mrs. James F. Almy. Mr. George A. Brown. Mr. William O. Chapman. Mr. Robin Damon. Mr. William H. Gove. Mr. George B. Harris. Mrs. William M. Hill. Mr. Frank A. Langmaid. Mr. J. Henry Langmaid. Mr. Arthur L. Louo;ee. Mr. William Messervey. Mr. John M. Raymond. Mr. Ira Vaughn. Mrs. Charles F. Whitney. The following classes of butions to the library : — The Class of July, 1863. The Class of January, 1869. The Class of January, 1870. The Class of January, 1874. The Class of January, 1875. The Class of July, 1875. The Class of January, 1876. The Class of June, 1876. The Class of January, 1880. The Class of June, 1880. The Class of January, 1881. The Class of January, 1882. The Class of June, 1883. graduates have made generous contri- The Class The Class The Class The Class The Class The Class The Class The Class The Class The Class The Class And many of January, 1885. of June, 1885. of January, 1886. of June, 1886. of January, 1887. of January, 1889. of January, 1890. of January, 1891. of January, 1892. of June, 1892. of June, 1894. teachers and others. 38 STATE NOBMAL SCHOOL, SALEM. REGISTER OF STUDENTS. 1900- 1901. Gkaduates. — Class LXXXYI. — June 27, 1900. Esther Sargent Andrews, . . . Gloucester. Mabel Dorcas Barnes, . Haverhill. Sarah Boardman Barnes, . . Haverhill. - Mary Agnes Barry, . . Salem. Mary Louise Baxter, . . Maiden. Alice Lavinia Bird, . Lynn. Mary Eleanor Bird, . . Chelsea. Mabel May Bissett, . . Everett. Josie Lee Blakely, . Medford. Mabelle Louise Boultenhouse, . . Amesbury. Elizabeth Mary Breslin, . Cambridge. Maude Muller Brickett, . Melrose. Rhoda Avanilla Briggs, . Marion. Michael Mathew Burke, . Revere. Mary Alice Campbell, . Antrim, N. H. Abbie Carr, . Ipswich. Ethel Louise Clark, . .- . Melrose. Mary Laura Clark, . Henniker, N. H. Allie Augusta Cole, . . Beverly. Agatha Gertrude Frances Comn lins, . Somerville. Mildred McCollom Conner, . Chelsea. Josephine Agnes Connors, . Peabody. Nora Mary Conroy, . . Peabody. Mary Elizabeth Corcoran, . . Stoneham. Anna Frances Costello, . Groveland. Florence Ernestine Crombie, . North Groveland. Elgenia Antoinette Crosby, . Maiden. Sibyl Grace Crosby, . . Manchester, N. H. Bessie Dennis Cross, . . Haverhill. Elizabeth Mary Crowley, . . Cambridge. Mary Louise Cunningham, . Salem. Sarah Blanche Cunningham, . Merrimac. STATE NOBMAL SCHOOL, SALEM. 39 Mary James Damon, . Lydia Caldwell Daniels, Mabel Katharine Davis, Alice Cora Day, . Gertrude Patricia Desmond, Carrie Harwood Doak, Mary Elizabeth Donovan, . Gertrude Elizabeth Downing, Annie Thorndike Elwell, . Annie Josephine Fanning, Helena Monica Follen, Julia Goldman, . Ethel Hamilton, . Ethel Hammond, Nellie Loretto Audrey Harney, Emma Josephine Houlahan, Jeannette Maxwell Hunter, Flora Yeaton Joplin, . Alice May Kyle, Josie May Lundberg, Mary Alice Macklin, . Lena Draxcy Marshall, Mary Augusta McCarty, Laura Ritchie McCurdy, Martha Clarissa Mirfield, Grace Lydia Morrison, Anna Fosgate Munroe, Ralph Brigham Munroe, Ruby Frances Nason, Marion Furber Newell, Emily Maude Oates, . Helen Josephine Patten, Sarah Blanche Pelonsky, Grace Garfield Pettengill, Sadie Bessie Quimby, Daisy Ethel Sails, Anna Kittredge Sylveira, Sadie Elizabeth Thompson Mary Caroline Til ton, Margaret Rowena Tracy, Katherine Theresa Turbett, Lilla May Walker, Ednah Abigail Warren, Elizabeth Veronica Watson, Anna Frances White, . Scituate Centre. Maplewood. Somerville. Melrose Highlands. Medford. Marblehead. Georgetown. Everett. Salem. Salem. Nahant. Salem. Ware. Salem. Lynn. Cambridge. Bradford. Hampton, N. H. Everett. Lawrence. Cambridge. Melrose. Lynn. Beverly. Melrose. Brockton. North Reading. North Reading. West Boxford. West Newbury. North Andover Center. Gloucester. Boston. Salisbury. Maiden. Methuen. Melrose. Manchester, N. H. Salem. Georgetown. Salem. Somerville. Everett. Manchester. Salem. 40 STATE NOBMAL SCHOOL, SALEM. Carolyne Mae Wilson, . Cherryfield, Me. Edith Kinsman Wilson, . Gloucester. Dora Philbrick Woodberry, . Beverly. Certificate for One Yearns Work. Grace Deining, . Beachmont. Helen Pernal Dewey, . Boston. Gertrude Brown Goldsmith, A.B., . Manchester. Marguerite Elizabeth Helen Lovewell, . East Otisfield, Me. Mary Adelaide Mclntire, . . York Corners, Me. Mabel Browning Soper, . Waltham. Frances Elizabeth Young, . . South Boston. Post-graduates. Mary Agnes Barry, . Salem. (State Normal School, Salem, 1900.) Ethel Hammond, .... . Salem. (State Normal School, Salem, 1900.) Anna Kittredge Sylveira, . . Melrose. (State Normal School, Salem, 1900.) Special Stude NTS. Bertha Hayward Burridge, . Randolph, Vt. (Randolph High School.) Carrie May Carlton, .... . Cedar Grove, Me. (G-orharn Normal School, '95.) Alice Margaret Day, .... . Webster. (Townsend High School, '86.) Cora June Hersey, .... . Ererett. (Exeter, Maine, High School.) Mabel Abbie Holt, .... . Marlborough, N. H. (Marlborough High School.) Lucy Edith Osgood, . Pittsfield, N. H. > (New Hampton Literary Institution, 94.) Ida Mae Perkins, .... . Meredith, N. H. (New Hampton Literary Institution, 94.) Edith Alice Preston, . Strafford, Vt. (Thetford Academy, '91.) Walter Knight Putney, . Gloucester. r (Brown University.) Winifred Rose, . Stoughton . (Roxbury High School.) Nettie Louise Taylor, .... . Everett. (Cushing Academy.) Jennie Towne, . Spencer. (State Normal School, Salem.) Grace Faulkner Ward, A. B., . Lynn. (Smith College, 1900.) STATE NOBMAL SCHOOL, SALEM. 41 Students of the Tavo Jessie Mae Bailey, Margaret Warren Bailey, Bessie Johnson Baker, Marion Holmes Baker, Mabelle Catherine Barry, Fanny Leigh Beckwith, Edith May Bickford, . Gracia Emma Bickford, Lillian Agnes Bickford, Golclie Netina Bissett, Mary Frances Blanchard, Catharine Boyle, Annie Mae Brackett, . Laura Brooks, Adah Jane Brown, Alvanora Robinson Brown, Annie Jean Brown, . Rebekah Louisa Bruorton, Mary Etta Burns, Katharine Frances Callahan. Ursula Florence Carleton, Mary Teresa Carlin, . Mary Beatrice Cashman, Agnes May Choate, . Lisa Ardelle Clark, . Florence Baxter Cochran, Ethel Ware Coker, Flora Elvina Cooter, . Edith Gertrude Corrin, Gertrude Frances Coyne, Amy Boardman Crombie, Marion Lewis Cruff, . Lillian Mae Cuddy, . Lillian Florence Curtis, Clara Louise Cutts, . Sara Annie Davis, Fannie Boutelle Deane, Altana Starr Deming, Jennibelle Calef Dennett, Emily Monica Desmond, Grace Vivian Desmond, Kathleen Elizabeth Desmond, Addie Vandelia Dexter, Years' Course. Melrose Highlands. Haverhill. Maiden. Revere. Lynn. Somerville. Conway, N. H. * Rochester, N. H. ^ '-^oLutr- \ ; Conway, N. H. Somerville. Danvers. Newburyport. Everett. Salem. Salisbury. Somerville. Danvers. Reading-. Gloucester. Cambridgeport. Lynn. Peabodv. J Belmont. Essex. Haverhill. Somerville. Salem. East Cambridge. Stoneham. Medford. Manchester. Marblehead. Somerville. Gloucester. Lynn. Salem. Haverhill. Beachmont. Amesbury. -» Medford.it/ ViAA*a*svl+^ Lawrence. Stoneham. Marlborough, N. H. 42 STATE NOBMAL SCHOOL, SALEM. Annie Margaret Dillon, Rockport. Jessie Adelle Dix, . Beach mont. Pauline Milson Dodge, . Topsfield. Bridget Helena Doherty, . Winchester. Ellen Catherine Donovan, . . Georgetown. Mary Louise Donovan, . East Cambridge. Catherine Marie Doran, . North Cambridge. Florence Louise Eaton, . VVoburn. Lucie Melissa Eaton, . . North Reading. Helen Sawyer Elclridge, . Wakefield. Alice May Ellenwood, . Reading. Blanche Kimball Esty, . Middleton. Elizabeth Ethel Fairbanks, . North Reading. Sarah Price Felter, . Lynn. Agnes Gertrude Ferguson, . Topsfield. Florence Barnes Fitz, . . Lynn. Katherine Helen Flanagan, . Haverhill. Edith Louise Fletcher, . Middleton. Katherine Grace Foley, . Winchester. Florence Alberta Foss, . Haverhill. Emma Julia Foster, . . Montpelier, Vt. Joseph Francis Foster, Jr., . Beverly. Vina May Frame, . Haverhill. Elizabeth Agnes Freeto, . Marblehead. Abbie Adaline Fuller, . Newton Centre. Annie Ethel Fulton, . . Lynn. Helen Frances Gallivan, . Danversport. Abbie Bertha Glines, . . Beverly. Alice Marion Goodwin, . Wakefield. Elsie Philomena Gorman, . . . Manchester. Mary Ellen Gorman, . . Medford. Ethel May Gould, . Goffstown, N. H. Alice Whitcomb Gowing, . . North Reading. Agnes Catherine Grady, . Wakefield. Alice Catherine Grady, . Melrose. Mary Anastasia Grady, . Wakefield. Ethel Beulah Gray, . . Rockport. Katharime Marie Greene, . . North Cambridge. Mary Frances Haggerty, . . Andover. Florence Safford Haley, . Exeter, N. H. Ada Venus Hall, . Wakefield. Annie Pauline Ham, . . Shapleigh, Me. Mary Margaret Hannon, . . Peabody. Marion Esther Hardy, . Amesbury. Sarah Ethel Harriman, . West Boxford. 8 TATE NOBMAL SCHOOL, SALE 'M. 43 Charlotte Eugenia Hawkins, Alice Margaret Hayes, Mary Rose Hayes, Mildred Beatrice Hayward, Gertrude Frances Healey, . Alice Eugenia Hebblethwaite, Grace Henrietta Hebblethwaite Esther Lillian Herrick, Flora Winifred Hobbs, Mabel Lucile Hobbs, . Margaret Mabel Hooper, Lizzie Edna Hopkins, Charlotte Mary Hoyt, Effie May Hull, . Annie Louise Jackson, Mildred Louise Jepson, Ethel Marie Johnson, Marion Emma Jones, Esther Hacker Kelley, Susie Marion Kelley, . Rosamonde Blanche Kelly, Maud Bertha Kennerson, Mary Jane Keogh, Nellie Agnes Kerrigan, Nettie Louise Kimball, Emma Dayton Kinsman, Elizabeth Pitman Lefavour, , Katharine Elizabeth Leighton, Katherine Agnes Linehan, Louise Margaret Logan, Bertha Frances Lovett, Ethel Blanche Macomber, Alice Dorothy Madden, Julia Agnes Mahony, . Mary Ellen Maloney, Lillian Estelle Mansfield, Elsie Mason, Edith Helen Mathews, Elizabeth Agnes McGrath, Kate Merritt, Nellie Gertrude Meserve, Susie Ross Meserve, . Edith Katherine Moore, Florence Mabel Moore, Mary Edith Moran, . Cambridge. Bradford. Bradford. North Reading. Peabody. Chelsea. Chelsea. Georgetown. West Ossipee, N. H. West Ossipee, N. H. Lynn. Melrose. Newburyport. Gloucester. Lynn. Lynn. Lynn. Medford. Lynn. Hyde Park. Haverhill. Melrose. Chelsea. Haverhill. Lynn. Salem. Beverly. Bradford. Bradford. Peabody. Beverly. W r averley. Bradford. Somerville. Wakefield. Wakefield. Everett. Everett. Salem. Lynn. North Andover. Salem. Rockport. Northampton. North Cambridge. 44 STATE NOBMAL SCHOOL, SALEM. Mary Theresa Mulally, Mary Elizabeth Mullins, Alice Margaret Mulrey, Abby Davis Munro, . Mary Gertrude Victorine Murphy, Bessie Mae Nichols, . Jessie Wardell Noble, Ada Florence Norton, Abigail Gertrude CTConnell, Mary Elizabeth O'Connell, Mabel Ingalls Parker, Lucy Morton Parks, . Helen Louise Patten, . Marion Lizzie Peabody, Frances Kirsten Pedersen, Bessie Blanche Perkins, Grace Mildred Perley, Bertha Margaret Petrie, Louise Marion Pratt, . Elva Blanche Prescott, Katherine Yeaton Prescott, Elsie Lizzie Preston, . Elizabeth Frances Qui n Ian. Mary Ellen Quirk, Helena Radcliffe, Margaret Josephine Reade, Louise Helen Reardon, Florence Maria Remon, Ruth Eliza Remon, Jessie Carroll Rhodes, Lydia Sleeper Richards, May Ellen Ring, Ethel Maud Robinson, Martha Trafton Robinson, Isa Beatrice Roscoe, . Jennie Bell Ross, Lydia May Rowell, Edith Myra Sargent, . Maud Ethel Sauer, Alice Louise Shaw, Mary Louise Shea, Gertrude Mary Sides, Laura Henrietta Slocomb, Marian Belle Smith, . Vida Emma South wick, Nettie Nutting Stanley, Danversport. Cambridge . Cambridge. Fells. Haverhill. Lynn. Rockport. Essex. Peabody. Newburyport. Lynn. Chelsea. Melrose Highlands. Jamaica Plain. Maiden. Topsfield. East Boxford. Salem. Reading. Chelsea. Lynn. Beverly Farms. Peabody. Waltham. Maiden. Woburn. Maiden. Salem. Salem. North Reading. Danversport. Salem. Gloucester. Hamilton. Marblehead. *^ "^^T^C North Cambridge. Amesbury. Manchester, N. H. Chelsea. Swampscott. Salem. South Groveland. Maiden. Beverly. Marlborough, N. H. Marblehead. M STATE N0B3IAL SCHOOL, SALEM. 45 Carolyn Maude Stanwood, .... West Newbury. Alice May Stroud, Beachmont. Abigail Marie Sullivan, Maiden . Anna Frances Sullivan, Salem. Annie Genevieve Sullivan, , Haverhill. Agnes Gertrude Sweeney, Medford. Mary Leta Taylor, Unity, Me. Mary Magdalen Taylor, North Andover Depot. Gertrude Sophie Thayer, Cambridgeport. Emma May Thompson, Melrose. Helen Lane Thurston, Rockport. Eleanor Florence Toolin, . Dover, N. H. Georgiana Alice Tree, Boston, Florence Emma Tufts, Gloucester. Anna Gertrude Turner, Salem. Katherine Louise Usher, . Lynn. Mary Irene Vincent, . Somerville. Charlotte Tapley Walcott, . Dan vers. Ethel May Walcott, . Salem. Mabel Angelina Wallis, Beverly. Rowland Howard Watts, West Boxford. Alice Webber, Lynn. Annie Elizabeth Welch, North Cambridge. Emma Gertrude Wentworth, Cambridgeport. Ethel Marguerite Wheeler, Salem. Mary Elizabeth White, . Cambridgeport. Gertrude Eastman Wilkins, Middleton. Lula May Wilkins, Stoneham. Anna Foster Willey, . Swampscott. Margarette Edyth Williams, Chelsea. Helen Bragdon Withey, Danversport. ) J v* Summary. Post-graduates, 3 Special students, ... . . .13 Students of the two years' < 30urs e, . 210 226 Whole number of students from the opening of the school, Whole number of graduates, * Number of certificates for one year's work, 4,643 2,360 9 Certificate Required for Admission to a Preliminary Examination. i 90 i . has been a pupil in the School for three years and is, in my judgment, prepared to pass the normal school preliminary examination in the following group, or groups, of subjects and the divisions thereof: Group II Group IV Group III. Group V. Signature of principal or teacher, Address, Certificate of Graduation and Good Character. This is to Certify that M is a regular graduate of a four years' course of the High School, and that, to the best of my knowledge and belief, he is a person of good moral character. Principal. 1901. Dllllltltll)]) ] ,))»)))))>)))>)i))i Certificate of Good Health. This is to Certify that I am personally and professionally acquainted with M , and that, to the best of my knowledge and belief, he is free from any disease or infirmity that would unfit for the office of a teacher. M.D. 1 901.